Urban System Integration

Han Admiraal has spent a large part of his career understanding the relationship between the city at the surface and the underground space available below the surface. The subsurface, first and foremost, is the bearer of life. It carries the city on top; it provides ecosystem services to the city and offers often unseen opportunities to the city.

These opportunities can manifest themselves by integrating surface space and subsurface space. There are numerous examples worldwide of how to achieve this successfully. Numerous cases also show how it went badly wrong through a lack of planning and management. The subsurface differs in many respects from the surface and requires a radically new approach to planning.

Han Admiraal can help you integrate underground space into your planning through a comprehensive plan for action providing you with a clear framework and a sense of purpose. Together with Antonia Cornaro, he is available to help you take the four steps that are required to make the underground space part of the city. Together they can call on an extensive network of experts for further support if needed.

We know how to help you take these steps.

Awareness leads to vision & strategy, participation enables planning, management monitors and maintains the subsurface.


To become sustainable and resilient future cities require underground space awareness. With this knowledge comes the realisation that the subsurface needs deep insights which mean analysis of data, mapping of data and assessment of data.


Having unveiled the subsurface and gained insight Strategic Underground Planning Sessions are held to develop a comprehensive vision and strategy. 


Having developed the vision and set the strategy within the local policy & planning context stakeholders are invited and through Participatory Underground Planning Sessions information is acquired for further integrating the subsurface into the urban planning process. 


Ultimately, management of underground space is required, so that future use of the subsurface can be approved and monitored.

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